area models 
A model of multiplication that shows each place value product 
commutative property 
The sum/product stays the same when the order of the addends is changed. a + b = b + a, or a x b = b x a. (Ex: 3 + 5 = 5 + 3 or 5 x 3 = 3 x 5) 
conversion factor 
A numerical factor used to multiply or divide a quantity when converting from one system of units to another. (Ex the conversion factor is 3 for converting yards to feet. 2yds x 3 = 6 feet) 
decimal divisor 
a divisor with a decimal 
decimal fraction 
A fractional number with a denominator of a power of 10, usually written with a decimal point. (Ex. 0.1; 0.01; 0.001; etc.) 
denominator 
The number or expression written below the line in a fraction. (Ex. In the fraction 4/5, the denominator is 5) 
distribute 
give, share, deal out 
equation 
A statement that two mathematical expressions are equal. (Ex. 9 x 3 = 20 + 7) 
equivalent fraction 
Fractions that have the same value. (Ex. 1/2 = 2/4 = 4/8…) 
expression 
A variable or combination of variables, numbers, and symbols that represents a mathematical relationship. (Ex. x + 3) 
factors 
An integer that divides evenly into another number. (Ex. 2 x 6 = 12, 2 and 6 are factors) 
fraction greater than or equal to 1 
a combination of whole numbers and fractions OR a numerator greater than or equal to the denominator (improper fraction) (ex. 1 3/4, 4/3) 
fractional unit 
dividing a unit into equal parts 
hundredth 
In the decimal numeration system, hundredths is the name of the next place to the right of tenths (Ex In the number 4.38, 8 is in the hundredths place) 
line plot 
A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line. 
mixed number 
A number with an integer and a fraction part. (Ex. 3 1/2) 
number lines 

numerator 
The number or expression written above the line in a fraction. (Ex. In the fraction 4/5, the numerator is 4) 
parentheses ( ) 
Used to group symbols and operations in math. When simplifying an expression, the operations within the parentheses are performed first. 
quotient 
The result of the division of one quantity by another. (Ex. 20/5 =4. 4 is the quotient) 
simplify 
To express a fraction in simplest form. (Ex. 8/10 in simplest form is 4/5) 
tape diagram 
A strategy and visual model used to help solve problems. 
tenth 
In the decimal numeration, tenths is the name of the place to the right of the decimal
point. (Ex. In the number 4.3, 3 is in the tenths place) 
unit 
A quantity chosen as a standard in terms in which other quantities may be expressed. (Ex. If 3 units = 270 cups, then 1 unit = 90 cups) 
unit fraction 
A fraction with a numerator of 1. 
unknown 
the missing part 
whole unit 
the whole/total quantity in a given problem (Ex. Top of a tape diagram) 

